Architectural period Timeline
1830: Inventions of Railroad and Steam Power. Arts & Crafts movement is a reaction against industrialization.
1849: California Gold Rush prompts many to go west. Spanish Colonial architecture influences the rise of Mission style architecture.
1865: End of Civil War and the beginning of Reconstruction mark the rise of Arts and Crafts Movement in earnest.
1877: William Morris founds the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings in the United Kingdom. His work influences the establishment of the National Trust.
1901: Gustav Stickley begins publication of "The Craftsman". The first issue is dedicated to William Morris and the second to John Ruskin, leaders of the Arts & Crafts movement in Europe.
1908: Sears Roebuck catalog introduces the mail order house: the average kit home has 30, 000 pieces. Between 1908 and 1940, 100, 000 homes are sold.
1909: Construction of the Gamble House Pasadena, CA by the architects Greene & Greene serves as a model for later Craftsman homes.
1929 — 1939— The Great Depression: The comparatively affordable bungalow gains popularity over more elaborate styles.
1935: Frank Lloyd Wright builds Fallingwater; modern architecture with elements drawn from the Arts & Crafts Movement.
1941: Start of World War II marks the decline of Arts & Crafts movement.
The Arts and Crafts Movement, with its call to return to the ideals of craftsmanship and the honest use of materials that characterized past eras, evolved as a reaction to the increasing industrialization of the Victorian era. Spanning the Victorian Age and extending into the World War II years, the architectural and decorative impulses of the Art and Crafts Movement were expressed in various forms around the world.
The founder, and one of the main voices shaping this movement, was the Victorian Englishman, William Morris. A poet, writer, designer and socialist, Morris spent time studying at Oxford University, intending to become a clergyman. He soon discovered he was far more interested in the decorative arts.
The American Arts and Crafts Movement is characterized by the Craftsman style in architecture. Craftsman houses were generally one and a half to two stories tall. They were environmentally sensitive structures that not only suited, but made good use of their surroundings – the materials that went into Craftsman houses were usually native.
In both architecture and art, the American Arts and Crafts movement shows a nostalgia for the personal and private in design and use. Decoration and color are muted and made useful rather than eliminated. Quality and craftsmanship is emphasized, and each element is given weight as part of integrating the design into the complete environment.
Craftsman Craftsman style architecture is the hall of the American Arts and Crafts Movement. The founder, and one of the main voices shaping this movement...